The Power of Machiavelliâ€™s The PrinceÂ Â
Nowadays, it is politically impossible to commit to paper a â€œtraining guideâ€ for leaders. There are innumerable detractors to any possible stance or strategy a leader might adopt. As a result of this, all â€œtrainingâ€ must take place behind closed doors, far from the prying eyes and ears of the news media or the public. But this has not always been the case.
NiccolÃ² Machiavelli was brave enough to give the leaders of his day a how-to guide. In this work, The Qualities of a Prince, we are given a point-by-point description of what a leader should do to effectively lead his country. Machiavelli explains that, because leadership is (obviously) a position of command, â€œ[war] is the only profession which benefits one who commands. â€Â (p. 33) He goes on to say that, in order to ensure peace, a leader must always be ready for war. He cites a multitude of past, present and even fictitious examples of military leaders who lead peaceful countries. He was writing, however, for the leaders of a heavily taxed, war torn area. His Italy was under constant attack from both French and Spanish soldiers, and at the same time under attack from the inside (the Medici family, Italy's current ruling family) by high taxes that funded the wars. His Qualities is considered by some to be the best manual for pulling a country out of a bad situation much like the one Italy was in. This work was not necessarily meant for a country that is already at peace. The ruthlessness of the leader described in Qualities would almost surely cause dissent among the people of the peaceful country.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Machiavelli chose many important points to bring up in his discussion on the necessity of military prowess. A leader must â€œâ€¦learn the nature of the terrainâ€ (p. 36) that he is meant to protect. Machiavelli probably discusses this because the Medicis were not aware of the advantage that the French and Spanish were gaining by conquering the northern, mountainous regions of Italy. Militarily, higher ground is a much sought after advantage. The leaders of the land could in no
way get to know land that was no longer their own, and so, could no longer see the advantages or disadvantages of the land. What they must now do, is gain all knowledge of the land left to them, so as not to loose it.
In his novel, Native Son, Richard Wright reveals his major theme of the Black population in America in the 1930â€™s. In the opening scene of the novel, Wright introduces his condemning message towards the ugliness of American racism and the social oppression of Blacks in his time. The opening scene of Native Son functions by foreshadowing future events that occur throughout the novel involving major symbols that are introduced in the scene to represent other elements in the novel. The scene also establishes an atmosphere of hopelessness and despair as it presents the Thomas apartment setting and its contrasting image of the Dalton mansion.
The function of the scene is established by three major elements which is the alarm clock, the rat-catching, and the apartment setting. The first element that is introduced is the ambiguous alarm clock. The alarm clock that awakens Bigger Thomas and his family at the opening of the novel is a major symbol that Wright uses to attack American racism. The loud ring the alarm clock gives off serves as a wake-up call Wright wants his audience to hear. Wright uses the alarm to represent his assertive message to the American public of the destructive effects of racism and oppression American society has accepted. His call for change is like a prophetic warning such as Elisha gives, in Biblical context, demanding the need for social change before it is too late for the nation of ancient Israel. Similar to Elishaâ€™s warning, Wright predicts revolutionary violence and social upheaval if racism and oppression is not stopped in American society.
Another function of the alarm clock is its foreshadowing of Biggerâ€™s symbolic awakening in the course of the novel. The clock in the opening scene represents Bigger as a powder keg, both of which are waiting to go off at any moment. Biggerâ€™s climactic point of his explosive act of killing Mary serves the same function as the alarm given off from the clock whereas both wake and opens the eyes of those who hear it or see it. The alarm clock symbolizes Biggerâ€™s new realization that he should not feel guilty for the killing of Mary because of the living conditions White society forced him to live into, which made him into what he is.
Another important element in the opening scene that Wright uses to attack racism and oppression is the rat-catching. In the commencement of the novel, Bigger discovers a huge black rat and his mother and sister jump in hysteria. Bigger then corners the rat, and as the rat attacks back, he strikes it with a skillet; then smashes it superfluously until it became a bloody pulp and showed it to Vera. The rat-catching scene is significant because it foreshadows Bigger being tracked down and caught in the course of the novel.
In the scene, Wright portrays the black rat as Bigger Thomas. Wright makes them resemble like each other because of their color and their unwanted presence. Like rats, the Black population are viewed as vermin and unwanted pests by White society. With this perspective, the public oppresses and controls the Black population to prevent them from getting near towards Whites in American society.
Both Vera and Mother Thomasâ€™ hysteria towards the rat resembles White societyâ€™s hysteria toward Biggerâ€™s murder and assumed rape of a White woman. Vera and Mother Thomasâ€™ reaction towards the huge black rat is that of disgust and fear of what it may do. In comparison, when the public found the truth behind the killing of Mary, they panicked and feared of what a Black murderer and rapist is capable of doing. Wright uses this episode to reveal the intense hate the racist American society has towards the Black population. He also uses it to call attention to the excessive paranoia the public exhibits which is a link to the intensity and depth of American racism.
Another foreshadowing in the novel would be the representation of Biggerâ€™s capture through Biggerâ€™s cornering of the rat. In the beginning of the novel, Bigger blocks the exit of the rat such as how the police block the exit on Bigger later on in the novel. The foreshadowing extends also at how the rat attacks viciously at Biggerâ€™s pant leg such as how Bigger shoots back at his capturers to prevent being caught. These aggressive scenes between survival and fear points out the result and effects of American societyâ€™s strong racist views as Wright describes the capturers drive to capture what seems dangerous and fearsome to them.
The last and final foreshadowing in the opening scene would be Biggerâ€™s superfluous bashing of the rat and his act of showing the bloody rat to Vera. The scene is used to portray Biggerâ€™s excessive beating at the time of capture and Buckleyâ€™s exhibition of Biggerâ€™s capture and death. The excessive beating of both the rat and Bigger relate the abuserâ€™s need for their thirst witnessing pain being inflicted upon their subject. They are also similar because their unnecessary abuse is a signal of the intense hate the abuser had towards them. Also, the exhibition of Bigger by Buckley presents the similar racist connotations as the beating does. In the novel, Buckley holds Bigger as a political advantage, stressing a racist message to Blacks to show them what happens to the unwanted Blacks when they break the law in Richard Wrightâ€™s time which consists of strict and racist laws.
One last important element of the opening scene is the setting of the dilapidated Thomas apartment. One function of this apartment setting is to set the atmosphere for the novel as a whole. The run-down and squalid apartment gives a sense of hopelessness and despair. The gloomy aspect of the setting describes the victimization of the Thomas family done by the society in which they are living in.
Another function of the apartment setting is that it is a microcosm for how Blacks live throughout the city of Chicago. The apartment is a small, congested room fixed with a kitchen and no walls to separate the men from the women. The inappropriateness of their apartment is exemplified when both Buddy and Bigger have to turn their heads away while Mother Thomas and Vera dress. These unacceptable living conditions are created by an oppressive society and creates an unstable Black society which produces people such as Bigger who turn out to be exactly what White society believes they are like.
The apartment setting is also part of a geographical contrast with the Dalton mansion. The apartment shows the unfair distribution of wealth as the Dalton mansion exhibits aristocratic characteristics with its multiple rooms and white columned porch; while the Thomas apartment has a mere single room, which occupies an entire family, and consists of a rat infestation. The contrast helps enforce the sense of the inequality and injustice while it also presents a divided Black and White society made possible by a racist country.
Altogether, the opening scene functions to attack American society and its oppressive standpoint towards Blacks in Richard Wrights time. Wright establishes the sceneâ€™s function by using these three major elements: the alarm clock, the rat-catching, and the apartment setting. Richard Wright central theme of change is produced by the opening scene to correspond with the rest of the novel as it stresses the warning of a possible revolution and social upheaval if conditions do not change in American society.
Modern Business - Essay Example
Research scholars have classified industrializations as â€˜earlyâ€™ and â€˜lateâ€™ in accordance to their origin. It has been observed that, industrial progress of particular country has simultaneously influenced companies to improve organizational and business performance. The concept of competitive advantage for national business system of different countries has an underlying linkage with â€˜earlyâ€™ and â€˜lateâ€™ industrialization process. It is evident from the above example that time period for evolution of industrialisation is different for every country and each of the country followed a distinctive pathway to bring industrialization. Chronologically, the United Kingdom was the birthplace for industrialization during nineteenth century and then followed the USA. Industrialization in other European countries took place during the twentieth century, while in countries like China and Japan; industrialization took place after the Second World War. Objective of this essay is to explain how organizational and institutional characteristics of national business systems in different countries have affected by â€˜earlyâ€™ and â€˜lateâ€™ industrialization process. Porter diamond model for national business system of different countries and theories regarding industrialization process will be discussed in order to build theoretical background for this essay. The study will cite examples of countries and industries in order to compare national business system of different economies. In the last section, the essay will try to throw some light on issues like sustainability of national competitiveness of various countries, in order to understand effectiveness of industrialization. Theoretical Background Early Industrialization & Late Industrialization Research scholars have stated that late industrialization process in various nations is deeply influenced by resource mobilization and intergenerational concept mobility. Late industrialized nations have already achieved significant feet in terms of resource mobilization and national capability development. Therefore, it can be said that, economic development of late industrialized nations started late but the growth rate of these countries can surpass the growth rate of those countries where industrialization took place early. Theoretically, late industrialization took place in those countries, which were economically backward due to over dependence on agriculture and lack of industrial output during early years of twentieth century. In 1979, OECD had published a report about countries which were industrialized at later half of twentieth century. According to this report, countries like Portugal, Hong Kong, Greece, Taiwan, Mexico, Brazil, Spain and South Korea have experienced industrial growth at later half of twentieth century and these countries are called as NICs or "newly industrializing countries" (Balassa, 1981). Industry experts have stated that economic growth in late industrialized countries is different in comparison to countries which are industrialized in early point of time. According to Balassa (1981), three factors, such as contribution of the industrial sector in labour force employment, rise in per capita income and percentage rise in
CRJ 520 - Research Paper Example
of all these challenges has been the lack of enough resources to support the program, and this has compounded the same problems that the program was supposed to address.
The Substance Abuse Felony Punishment (SAFP) program is an intensive and an inexpensive substance abuse program that the Texas State offers for offenders undergoing probation. Under this program, the offenders spend 6-12 months in a correctional facility that is run by officers from the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ). After leaving the Substance Abuse Felony Punishment facility, clients are placed within a residential establishment that is situated within the community, followed by a minimum of three and a maximum of nine months of outpatient counseling. The treatment offered by the Substance Abuse Felony Punishment program is usually offered on contractual by private treatment bodies contracted by the Texas Department of Criminal Justice. In the years that the program has been in operation, there has been ongoing criticism regarding the program especially on the lack of regulation by the state government (Singh & Chalï¬, 2008).
At the present, the Substance Abuse Felony Punishment program offers nearly 4,500 treatment beds that are strictly dedicated to individuals who have been charged for crimes related to substance abuse. Ideally, a person can only be placed under an SAFP program if a judge establishes that drug or alcohol abuse was responsible for the offense and that the offender is ideal for treatment. Under this program, an approximate 500 SAFP beds are preserved for parolees. In most cases, offenders are placed under the SAFP program either as an original condition or as an alternative of a supervision requirement while under management (Singh & Chalï¬, 2008).
Over the last three decades, Texas has come up with legislations and policies that are mean to bolster public safety. This has in turn led to overcrowding in prisons and jails and a corrections budget that has
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